ABOUT THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING FUTURE TEACHER-TRAINERS’ IN THE CONDITION OF EDUCATION INFORMATIZATION
In this article are considered actuality of informatization of professional education, about problems of readiness to use information and computer technology of professional activity of future teacher-trainers. Authors state that according to the accepted concept of the education, the offered technology of creation of models of activity of future teacher-trainers in most part has to be realized on the basis of information technology. Training of future teacher-trainers on the computer technologies, created on the basis of activity models of specialists, is applicable for model of training of specialists to natural-science specialties.
Professional competence is the result of professional education. Its formation is carried out through the content of education in total subject matters and professional skills formed at their development. It is dynamic process which provides development of a professional orientation of the personality, professionally important qualities and psychological and physiological properties, search of optimum ways of high-quality and creative performance of professionally significant kinds of activity according to specific features of the personality; it is mediated by professional activity and a social situation.
Possibility of development of professional competence approach to vocational training of future teacher-trainers in the conditions of informatization of education is provided with a number of basic characteristics of the personality, in particular, existence of professional interests, tendencies to a profession, absence of contradications, and also the following conditions of education:
- organizationally – pedagogical: curriculum, schedule, choice of criteria of an assessment of level of professional competence, etc.;
- the substantial: choice of the content of occupations, context of various training courses in the conditions of education informatization, their integration;
- the technological: the control and estimated procedures sensitive to features of experience gained by students, the principles of the organization of educational process, use of innovative technologies of training;
- acmeology: orientation on formation of abilities of students to a professional goal-setting, diagnostics of development of students, motivation of professional development, etc. .
Above-mentioned conditions are systemically realized in competence-based approach which relies on the principles of humanistic pedagogic and accumulates in itself some other modern pedagogical approaches and concepts: – personal and activity (provides the active and activity organization of educational process taking into account specific features and interests of students), – situational and problem (assuming creation of educational situations of various degree of problematical character), – communicative (provides professional development of the identity of students in the course of professional or professional the focused interaction, communication), – objective (the term is used by L.M. Friedman, E.I. Mashbits, etc.) (assumes modeling in educational process of hierarchy of the position and role tasks including the solution of problems of social and professional interaction), and also – contextual approach to a choice of the content of education .
In vocational training of future teacher-trainers in the conditions of informatization education of competent approach have all-methodological value; features of its direct realization in educational practice are caused by essence and the maintenance of professional competence of specific experts.
In general, professional competence is defined as set of qualities of the personality providing effective professional activity. The structure of these qualities includes such characteristics, as: – professionally important knowledge, skills; – professional abilities; – professional orientation; – experience of creative professional activity and thinking. Their integration represents unity of theoretical and practical readiness for concrete work and allows the expert to show ability to realize the potential for successful creative professional activity in practice .
The concept "competence" is interfaced to the concept "competency" under which understands a circle of questions in which the expert has to be competent, a field of activity in which it realizes the professional competence.
Questions of professional competence to psychology and pedagogical science were considered by various authors (B.C. Bezrukova, V. R. Vesnin, V. G. Gorchakova, L. Grebnev, I.A. Zimnyaya, N. B. Krylova, A.A. Leontyev, M. Rozenova, D. V. Chernilevsky, etc.).
Works of scientists and researchers V. I. Baydenko, L.Grebnev, E.F. Zeer, I.A. Zimney, N. V. Kuzmina, A.K. Markova, R.P. Milrud, E.I. Passov, Yu.G. Tatur, Yu.V. Frolov, A.V. Hutorskogo, V.D. Shadrikov, etc. also foreign L. Bachmann, Tsch. Velde, B. Oskarsson, D. Raven, D. Hayms, V. Hutmakher, etc. are devoted to researches of a problem of competency and competences.
V. Hutmakher notes that the concept "competence" is closer to the conceptual field "I know, how", than to the field "I know that" and emphasizes, "that the use is competence in operation". It gives the definition of 5 groups of the key competences accepted by the Council of Europe which formation is given importance in youth preparation:
- "... political and social competences, such as ability to accept responsibility, to participate in adoption of group decisions, to resolve the conflicts not violently, to participate in maintenance and improvement of democratic institutes;
- the cross-cultural competences connected with life in multicultural society.
To control manifestation (revival - resurgence) racism and xenophobia and development of climate of not tolerance, education has to "equip" young people with cross-cultural competences, such as acceptance of distinctions, respect of others and ability to live with people of other cultures, languages and religions .
- the communicative competences relating to mastery of oral and written communication which are especially important for work and social life, with accent that to those people who don't own them, social isolation threatens. In the same context of communication the increasing importance is gained by possession more than one language;
- the social and information competences connected with increase of informatization of society. Possession of these technologies, understanding of their application, weak and strengths and ways to critical judgment concerning information distributed by mass media means and advertizing;
- personal competence - ability to study throughout life as a basis of continuous training in a context both personal professional, and social life" [5, page 21].
B. Oskarsson provides the list of basic skills which can substantially be interpreted as competence synonyms. According to his opinion, basic skills "develop in addition to the specific professional. Such key competence include, in addition, ability of effective work in team, planning, solution of problems, creativity, leadership, enterprise behavior, organizational vision and communicative skills" [6, page 42].
Informatization of education is one of the most important conditions of reforming and modernization of Kazakhstan’s education system as in the sphere of education are prepared and trained those people who not only form the new information environment of society but they also should live and work in this new environment.
One of the main directions of modernization of Kazakhstan’s education is its informatization of education which at the present stage assumes equipment of educational institutions by modern means of informatics and their use as the highly effective pedagogical tool allowing essentially to increase efficiency of educational process at smaller expenses of forces and time as teachers, and being trained .
Problems of informatization of education – in particular informatization of professional education – are in the last decade, perhaps, most often and much discussed. One of such unresolved problems is the problem of adequate definition of the content of vocational training of future experts in the conditions of more and more obvious informatization of society and education.
Substantial "formula" of training of the person to activity in information society is known since the end of the 80th – the beginnings of the 90th years is so-called "business model" according to which future expert has to receive everything during vocational training that is required for the solution of professional tasks with use of computer and telecommunication equipment and new information technologies.
Therefore, it is necessary to include in vocational training surely for all specialties:
- the user knowledge and the abilities providing interaction of the person and the computer equipment;
- knowledge and abilities on use of the computer equipment and new information technologies as a cure of educational and professional tasks; and, at last;
- computer equipment and new information technologies as cure of the most various professional tasks.
In educational programs not enough attention is paid to training of future experts for use of new information technologies as a cure of professional tasks, and it doesn't correspond to realities and tendencies of professional activity.
Revision and radical change of the content of education at all its levels, caused by prompt development of process of informatization of education, is guided today not only by the increasing general education and vocational training of students, but also and by development of qualitatively new model of training of people to life and activity in the conditions of post-industrial information society, formation at them absolutely new, personal qualities necessary for these conditions and skills. In this regard it is necessary to change not only the education purposes, but also its contents, providing essentially new orientation to conditions and problems of information society .
Crucial importance here gets finding of appropriate technologies. The main requirements to which, on the one hand, ideas of a fundamentals and an education humanization, transfer of accent from information transfer process on process of professional and personal development of the trainee and search of appropriate technologies are today. On the other hand – need technologically to improve and optimize process of transfer of the increasing volume of information on a subject and ways of professional activity, scientific bases of subject matters.
Educational technologies need to be considered today from the point of view of technologies of creation of the educational process, providing not only assimilation of knowledge by trainees, but also their professional and personal growth. Such technologies meeting all specified requirements and allocated with listed signs, information technologies of training are.
I.G. Zakharova, opening essence of information technology of training in modern understanding, interprets it as "the pedagogical technology using special ways, program and technical means for work with information" .
The concept "education informatization" of the pedagogical dictionary is presented in a broad sense as "process of providing education by methodology and practice of development and optimum use of the modern information technologies focused on realization of the psychology and pedagogical purposes of training, education". In narrow sense – as introduction in education system establishments "the information means based on microprocessor equipment, and also information production and the pedagogical technologies which are based on these means" .
We understand the didactic process including a package of measures on filling and modification of the content of education, and also transformation of pedagogical processes as information technology of training on the basis of introduction in training and education of information production, the funds allocated for achievement of the objectives of education, corresponding to features of future activity and requirements to professionally important qualities of future expert.
In education it is possible to use effectively the following major advantages of information technologies .
- possibility of creation of the open education system providing to each individual own trajectory of training;
- basic change of the organization of process of knowledge by shift it towards system thinking;
- creation of an effective control system by information and methodical ensuring education;
- the effective organization of cognitive activity of trainees during educational process;
- use of specific properties of the computer, the most important of which treat: possibility of the organization of process of the knowledge supporting competence-based approach to educational process, individualization of educational process.
Use of means of information technologies in education will allow to change qualitatively the contents, methods and organizational forms of education and to increase quality of training at all steps of educational system, to individualize and intensify training process.
In system of the higher education, the purpose of vocational training of future experts are connected with formation of the spontaneous personality capable to independent search of knowledge, allowing to create and actively to use new information technologies, and to carry out professional activity.
Professional readiness demands vocational education, i.e. mastering system of special knowledge, abilities, the skills necessary for performance of functions, connected with this profession, and existence of necessary professional and educational system.
From a position of professional activity readiness is characterized as a subjective condition of the personality considering to certain professional activity capable and prepared for performance and aspiring to execute it.
In the conclusion it is necessary to note that in the conditions of escalating informatization of society and professional activity, and also owing to integration processes in education more intensive and specially planned work on providing future experts of all directions and levels sufficient level of the information and vocational training providing adequate realization of professional tasks is necessary. In professional sports education it is necessary to develop criteria of an assessment for full realization of competence-based approach and to choose the corresponding methods of diagnostics of level of formation of professional competence of experts in sports, that is to develop tools of an assessment of quality of professional education in the sphere physical education.
 Исаев В.А., Воротилов В.И. Образование взрослых: компетентностный подход: учебно-метод. пособие. - СПб.: ГНУ ИОВ РАО, 2005. – 92 с.
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Автор оригинала: B.K. Mukhamedzhanov, K.M. Berkimbaev, B. Z. Abuseitov, B.S. Omarov
Источник оригинала: Журнал "Вестник РУДН" Серия «Информатизация образования», 2014, №3
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