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Новости

SOME FEATURES OF COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH IN TRAINING FUTURE TEACHERS-TRAINERS


Аннотация
In article problems of formation of professional competences of future teachers-trainers are discussed. The main systems and types of professional competences of future experts are stated.

Текст документа

In the modern period is the creation of a common world education through, inter alia, the harmonization of educational standards, approaches, curricula, classification of specialties around the world. The Bologna Declaration regulates the construction of a common educational space in Europe by introducing a multi-level system of higher education and credit-modular system, modernization of the state guarantee system of management of quality education, the development of new formats of documents on education and modernization of education funding schemes. In today's fast-paced technological society, there is an increasing need for highly skilled and professionally qualified specialists.

In turn, according to the State Program for Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 [1], one of the most important tasks of modernization of the education system is the implementation of mandatory, recommendation and optional parameters of the Bologna process. One of the urgent problems of increasing the effectiveness of the training process by the loan program is the organization of independent work of students on the basis of the competence approach. The system of higher vocational education in Kazakhstan represent new challenges for the implementation of the Concept of Development of Education until 2015, that require full consideration of the complex and contradictory socio-economic and political processes taking place in our society and the state, as well as the patterns and trends of the world, European and national systems of higher education.

Kazakh universities implement multi-level professional education programs in various specialties of higher professional education. In order to implement these programs in the context of the social protection of students and increase the mobility of graduates and must comply with the general principles and innovative methods in teaching. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev in his Address to the Nation noted that "... without a modern education system and modern managers, thinking broadly, in large scale, in a new way, we cannot create an innovative economy. The task of Kazakh universities - to provide education to the world standards, and diplomas leading ones should be adhered throughout the world. "  In his message to the people president, said: "We have to create a uniform system for evaluating the effectiveness of training, knowledge and abilities of each student," [2].

Modern education is a necessary element of our society and culture, able to maintain the socio-cultural specifics of the country, to promote the development of young people, its integration into the traditional culture, to assist in the selection of the young generation lifestyle, adequate values ??of our people. The education sector has always been a factor which the life of any state in the world it is - an outpost of the future, dominant in the process of national modernization, the main condition for economic and social breakthrough in the coming century. [3]

In terms of modernization of Kazakhstan education and the signing of the Bologna Declaration H.A.Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University has assumed certain obligations. One of the main tasks of the university - flagship of international education of independent Kazakhstan –to enter into the common European educational space and gain international recognition of educational programs in leading specialties. In order to solve this problem, the main direction of the development of education in H.A.Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University is taken for the training of qualified specialists with a high international level with a high formation of professional competence on the competency-based approach.

The urgency of the problem is determined, first, by the fact that the professional competence implies that a future specialist of new knowledge, skills, style of thinking, that will provide the necessary social adaptation to the changes and ensure its competitiveness in the labor market; secondly, the need to improve the methodological and didactic organization of the professionally-oriented language training for students of a technical college; third, the objective requirement of modern society in the preparation of specialists able to integrate into the world information space, and fourthly, the trends of the national education policy.

Updating the attention of modern education community on the formation of professional competencies of the future expert (in this study, the future teacher-trainer) is in our opinion one of the main ways to improve the quality of education and the position of the methodology is to modernize the competence approach. The modern system of training high qualified sportsmen - members of the Olympic team has specific requirements for the training of trainers. It comprises a system of fundamental knowledge and the level of professional activities of specialists in the theory and methodology of sports training. The problem of specialist training for professional work has been the subject of attention of the outstanding teachers of the past, as Y.A. Komensky, A. Disterveg, K.D. Ushinsky, P.F. Lesgaft and etc. Soviet educators as N.K. Krupskaya, A.V. Lunacharsky, P.P. Blonsky, S.T. Shatsky and etc. concerned with the development of scientific bases of training the "new teacher".

The content of any profession is determined primarily by the objective requirements of the society in which is realized given professional activity. For professional trainer in our country, these requirements are expressed in the aims and objectives of physical education and sport. The main purpose of sports training is "... that through the achievement of high results to develop the mental and physical abilities of athlete to use sports activity as a factor of the harmonic formation of personality and upbringing in the public interest. » (L.P.Matveyev). In line with this objective in the process of sports training should be resolved in unity, educational, upbringing and health problems [4]. The study of the pedagogical conditions of formation of professional competence of future teacher-trainers aimed at satisfaction to public needs in understanding the role of fighting in the pedagogical process at the present stage of development of society.

In general, recognizing the great value of the results above named researches in the field of education, it should be noted that a number of issues related to the formation of professional competence of future teacher-trainers, including the lack of a system in the vision of the problem of professional competence of the teacher-trainer; incomplete disclosure of the mechanisms of its formation; undeveloped pedagogical conditions and means of formation of professional competence of the teacher-trainer requires a more thorough investigation.

By State Program for Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 years [1, p.3-4.] identified the main tasks of vocational training - training of skilled workers appropriate level and profile, competitive in the labor market, competent, responsible, fluent in their profession and based in adjacent areas, able to work effectively at the level of the world standards, ready for continuous professional growth, social and professional mobility,  satisfaction of the needs of the individual in getting the appropriate education.

The basis of preparation of the teacher-trainer, according to P.E. Reshetnikova, is the mastery of professional experience. Educational professional activities of students serve as an integrating factor of the whole system of training. The logic of the educational process is based on the scheme - from the practice of subjective experience to theoretical generalizations [5].

I.V. Rabotin concerned that components of professional educators ¬ have to be creative and innovative. He believes that innovation must become the property of the pedagogical work of the future teacher-trainer [6]. The five main components of the teaching (gnostic, design, structural, organizational and communicative components) need to add one more - an innovation. A university education should be tailored to the urgent need to form an innovative component of pedagogical activity of the future teacher. Scientists distinguished from 3 to 37 competencies that correspond to certain types of activity [7]. For example, I.A. Zimney’s classification has ten species, which are divided into three main groups. The first block includes the competence relating to the man himself as the subject of activity and communication. This includes the competence of health preservation, sense orientation and integration, competences relating to the interaction of human and social sphere, competences relating to the activities of civics and self-improvement. The second group includes the competence of social interaction with the community and competence in various types of communication. The third group includes the competence of learning activities, activity competence and the competence of information technology [7, p.10-12]

There are other classifications. For example, V.P.Kolesov highlights the following groups of competencies: personal and interpersonal skills, and general knowledgeable and knowledgeable professional, also general activity-related, and activity of a professional nature.

Council of Europe highlights five basic competencies that are necessary for a modern specialist for self-realization in modern society. Any modern person must possess the above competencies at the exit of the school, and future teacher-trainers are no exception. Speaking about the training of a specialist, we can not forget about the professional competence of students and later graduates. Many authors understand by the professional competence "... professional knowledge and skills demanded by the modern labor market, which should possess a graduate of higher institution to meet the requirements of potential jobs in their chosen profession" [8].

A.N. Pisarenko defines professional competence as "... a collection of larval qualities of specialist, allowing him liberally orientate in dynamic changing society, in the medium of their professional activities,  maximum use of their ability, adapting to the needs of society" [9]. From the above definitions it is clear that the professional competence - a very broad term. In addition to the specific professional skills required to work as a specialist, it is composed of knowledge, certain personality traits, etc. On this basis, it is reasonable to argue that the professional competence includes elements of each of the five core competencies allocated by the Council of Europe.

In our opinion, the system of basic competencies of graduates in physical education and sport can be schematically represented using Euler circles, as shown in Figure 1.

                                                             

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. The system of basic competencies of graduates in physical education and sport

 

 

At the heart of the system is professional competence, which incorporates elements of the five core competencies, but not completely absorbs the past, because of their composition, of course, includes components that are not related to the professional activities. The outer circles do not intersect, not because they have designated core competencies have no points of intersection, but because in this paper we are interested in their interaction with professional competence, and not with each other. Naturally, the figure shows a simplified model. In reality, the "competence" - is so complex and multifaceted concept, which is hardly possible to devise a scheme that represents all aspects of it. Competence - a set of inter-related personality traits, knowledge, skills, ways of life, defined in relation to a particular range of subjects and processes necessary for high-quality productive activities in relation to them. If a person has the necessary competences, this state of development is characterized by the term "competence".

Most authors understand the integrated characteristic of personality traits under the competence, the result of training the graduates to perform an activity in certain areas (competencies). Competence as well as competency includes cognitive, and value-motivational and emotional-volitional components. Competence - is situational category, as expressed in readiness for the implementation of any activities in specific skill (problem) situations.

Under the competence - is considered the quality of the individual, which manifests himself in the form of his ability and willingness to work, based on knowledge and experience or possession of relevant competency, including his personal relationship to it and to the subject. Based on the classic definition of competence, that is the availability of human skills for successful employment, it is necessary to give a clear distinction between the conceptual and categorical apparatus of our study. The model of the graduate must include competences that characterize him primarily as an employee of certain areas of production, science or culture. These can be, according to I.A. Zimney, such competencies: competencies related to himself as a person, subject of activity, communication; competence relating to social interaction with other people; competencies related to human activities.

Under professional competence  we understand the ability of the employee qualitative and faultless execute their own functions, successfully master new and be quickly adapted to changing condition.  In the basis of professional competence laid professional fitness, understood as a set of professional competencies needed for effective professional activity. M.I. Rozenova describes the concept of "professional competence" fairly narrowly - "as employee’s good knowledge of the subject of his immediate action, which is formed in the course of teaching and training in special disciplines", but, nevertheless, believes that situation of professional work is not limited with subject knowledge.

We believe that the professional competence of the teacher-trainer gets in present a new interpretation, integrating the knowledge, skills, experience and personal qualities providing professional development and self-fulfillment of the specialist. In the structure of professional competence can be distinguished professional- informative, professionally activity and professional - personal components. Professional- informative component expects the presence of theoretical knowledge in teacher ¬ in the bases of sciences learning the identity of the person that provides awareness in determining by teacher ¬ content of his professional activities on upbringing, training and education of children. Professionally-activity component includes professional experienced knowledge and skills tested in action, used by the person as the most effective.

Vocational and personal component includes professional and personal qualities that define the position and orientation of the teacher as an individual and the subject of activity.

To the list of professional competencies for future teacher-trainer, along with key professional competencies, you need to add one more - motor, which implies the ability to perform physical exercise, physical skills of care and insurance, and a number of application skills (installation and repair of equipment, travel skills, etc.) [10].

By analyzing the different approaches of scientists to study the concept of "professional competence" and given the specificity of physical education as a science and as an academic subject, we came to the conclusion that the professional competence of the teacher-trainer,  - a complex personality characteristics including a harmonious blend of professional, communicative and personal properties, allowing to achieve high quality results in the process of solving typical problems in the major occupations in the field of physical education. The structure of the professional competence of the teacher-trainer includes three components: a professionally-activity, communicative and larval, to each of it correspond certain competences and professionally-larval properties, base for given competence.

One of the main challenges facing the system of training of future teacher-trainers, is to improve the quality of vocational training students with the modern trends of development and use of modern educational technology in professional activities.

Professional competence is associated with psychological readiness and ability to work with students. Competence - willingness to education throughout the life. Of course, today's world is constantly changing. Therefore, once gotten knowledge is not sufficient to meet the requirements of modern society. For students studying a science like physics, this competence is, in our opinion, is especially important as new discoveries are constantly being made and improved by technology. Of course, the formation of readiness for lifelong learning - it is the task of teachers of all disciplines, the university as a whole, and the teacher of a professional foreign language can and should contribute to the development of this competence.

The formation of professional skills – primarily the teachers’ task profiling departments in specialized courses. However, the discipline of "National Sports" plays an important role in the development of the professional competence of students. Here are a few examples of how it can be developed and improved in the classroom for "National Sports":

1) Students improve their professional knowledge by the preparation of presentations, reports, design work, etc.

2) Students are able to apply the knowledge of "Physical Education and Sport" in situations close to real communication in the professional field.

3) Through the development of information, socio-cultural, socio-political, etc. competencies, so the elements of each of them are part of a professional.

Professional competence (PC) should include cognitive-activity, creative, emotional and behavioral components. As on the basis of the formation of the PC is active approach, then it establishes the relationship between the use and study of profiling courses. The use of physical culture and its study include human action in the performance of which it is developing a number of skills: general and socio-cultural. They provide solutions of problems in a variety of conditions, taking into account the various constraints and implemented in activities and actions, directed to the perception of techniques and tactics in connection with certain themes and areas of communication, and with the use of appropriate strategies.

Future professionals need to be competitive in the labor market demand. Therefore, the goal of education is determined primarily on the basis of curriculum requirements for knowledge and skills and the requirements of society to the development of a new generation. Students should be able to own, operate actively, and make decisions, to adapt flexible to changing conditions of life.

We acknowledge the fact that the analysis of the scientific literature and teaching practices at the H.A.Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, at the department "Physical Education and Sports" shows, that the use of modern educational technology in the process of training is of great importance and contributes to the formation of professional competence of future teacher-trainers. Theoretical and practical study will be continued by us and in our work, we conclude about the importance and relevance of the issues in the formation of professional competence of future teacher-trainers, modernization of the educational process, update the content of specific subjects in "Physical Education and Sport", which respectively affect the change in the training of specialists in the field of physical culture and sports.

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] State program for the development of education of The Republic of Kazakhstan to 2011-2020 years // URL: www.edu.gov.kz

[2] Address of the President of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev N.A. to people of Kazakhstan. – Astana: Elorda – 2012 // URL: http://www.akorda.kz/

[3] Taubayeva S.T. Theoretical bases of projecting state general standards of higher professional education: textbook for institutions. – Almaty: Gylym, 2003. – P. 265–270.

[4] Taubayeva S.T., Laktionova S.N. Pedagogical innovate as theory and practice of innovation in the system of education. Science fond and perspectives of development. – Almaty: Gylym, 2001. – P. 291–295.

[5] Reshetnikova P.E. Unusual technological system of training teachers. – M.: Vlados, 2001. – 301 p.

[6] Rabotin I.V., Akhatov A.M. Conceptual bases of pedagogical theory of Kaptereva P.F: monography. –  Almaty: Gylym, 2009. – 225 p.

[7] Zimnaya I.A. Competency of man – a new quality of the result of education // Problems of quality of education: Materials of XIII All-Russian counsel. – M.-Ufa, 2003. – 2nd book. – P. 4–15.

[8] Competence-oriented higher education: theory and practice: monograph / Under editing Kryaklina T.F. – Barnaul: AAEP, 2007. – P. 7–49.

[9] Pisarenko A.N. Intercultural experience as a tool of forming professional competence of future teachers // URL: http://psyjournals.ru/articles/d8265.shtml

[10] Mukhamedjanov B.K. Scientific-pedagogical bases of training future specialists of physical education: The abstract of dissertation for the degree of doctor of pedagogical sciences. – Turkestan, 2008. – 47 p.

 


Автор оригинала: V.V. Grinshkun, K.M. Berkimbaev, B.K. Mukhamedzhanov, B.Z. Abusseitov, B.S. Omarov
Источник оригинала: Журнал "Вестник РУДН" Серия «Информатизация образования», 2014, №4

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